Ball, E., Costello, R. A., Ballen, C. J., Graze, R., & Burkholder, E. Challenging Misconceptions about Race in Undergraduate Genetics. CBE-Life Sciences Education (in press)

Dunk, R. D. P., Malmquist, S. J., Prescott, K. K., Ewell, S. N., Henning, J. A., & Ballen, C. J. How do students critically evaluate outdated language that relates to gender in biology? CBE-Life Sciences Education (in press)

Costello, R. A., Driessen, E. P., Kjelvik, M. K., Schultheis, E. H., Youngblood, R. M., Zemenick, A. T., Weber, M. G., & Ballen, C. J. (2024). More than a token photo: humanizing scientists enhances student engagement. bioRxiv, 2024-01.

Costello, R.A., Beatty, A.E., Dunk, R.D., Ewell, S.N., Pruett, J.E., & Ballen, C. J.  Re-envisioning biology curricula to include ideological awareness. Research in Science Education: 1-14 (PDF).

Driessen, E. P., Wilson, A. E., Hall, I., Brewer, P., Odom, S., Ramsey, S. B., Wood, S., & Ballen, C. J. Group work enhances student performance in biology: A meta-analysis. BioScience, biae001. PDF

Adams, P. E., Beatty, A. E., Granados, E., & Ballen, C. J. Teaching at the intersection of science and society: An activity on healthcare disparities. Biology Methods and Protocols, bpad041.

Lamb, T., Driessen, E.P., Beatty, A.E., Youngblood, R., Esco, A., Cotner, S., Creech, C., Drake, A. G., Fagbodun, S., Hobbs, K., Lane, A. K., Larson, E., McCoy, S. J., Thompson, S., & Ballen, C. J. Equitable instructor assessment changes amid COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of College Science Teaching, 1-16.


Salehi, S., Ballen, C. J., Laksov, K. B., Ismayilova, K., Poronnik, P., Ross, P. M., Tzioumis, V., & Wieman, C. Global perspectives of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on learning science in higher education. Plos one18(12), e0294821.

Ballen, C. J., Beatty, A. E., & Granados, E. Evaluating Representation in Science through a Peer-Reviewed Research Study. CourseSource 10.

Pokorny, A., Ballen, C.J., Drake, A., Driessen, E.P., Fagbodun, S., Gibbens, B., Henning, J.A., McCoy, S.J., Thompson, S.K., Willis, C., Lane, A.K. “Out of my control”: Science undergraduates report mental health concerns and inconsistent conditions when using remote proctoring software. International Journal for Educational Integrity , 19(1), 22.

Ewell, S.N., Driessen, E.P., Grogan, W., Johnston, Q., Ferdous, S., Mehari, Y., Peart, A., Seibenhener, M., & Ballen, C. J. A Comparison of Study Behaviors and Metacognitive Evaluation Used by Biology Students. CBE-Life Sciences Education 22(4), ar36.

Adams, P., Driessen, E. P., Granados, E., Ragland, P., Henning, J. A., Beatty, A. E., & Ballen, C. J. Embracing the inclusion of societal concepts in biology improves student understanding. Frontiers in Education 8: 1154609.

Youngblood, R. M., Costello, R. A., Driessen, E. P., Radocha, A. R., Kjelvik, M., Schultheis, E., Zemenick, A., Weber, M. G., & Ballen, C. J. 2023. Exposure to Counterstereotypical Scientist Role Models Impact How Students Relate to Scientists. Auburn University Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship (PDF)

Costello, R., Salehi, S., Ballen, C. J., & Burkholder, E. Pathways of opportunity in STEM: Comparative investigation of degree attainment across different demographic groups at a large research institution.  International Journal of STEM Education 10(1), 1-18.

Beatty, A.E., Driessen, E.P., Clark, A.D., Costello, R.A., Ewell, S., Fagbodun, S., Klabacka, R.L., Lamb, T., Mulligan, K., Henning, J.A., & Ballen, C.J. Biology instructors see value in discussing controversial topics but fear personal and professional consequences. CBE-Life Sciences Education 22(3), ar28.

Arcila Hernández, L.M., Mittan-Moreau, C.S., Lamb, T., Holmes, K.D., McDonald, C.A., Zamudio, K.R., & Ballen, C.J. Half-century of student data reveal professional impacts of a biology field course. BioScience  73.1: 59-67.


Robnett, R., Ballen, C. J., Fagbodun, S., Lane, A. K., McCoy, S., Robinson, L., Weems, E., Cotner, S. Are synchronous chats a silver lining of emergency remote instruction? Text-based chatting is disproportionately favored by women in a non-majors introductory biology course. PLOS ONE 17.10 (2022): e0273301.

Tracy, C.*, Driessen, E.P.*, Beatty, A.E., Lamb, T., Pruett, J., Botello, J., Brittain, C., Claudio Ford, I., Josefson, C., Klabacka, R., Smith, T., Steele, A., Zhong, M., Bowling, S., Dixon, C., & Ballen, C. J. Why students struggle in undergraduate biology: sources and solutions. CBE-Life Sciences Education21(3), ar48.

Ewell, S., Cotner, S., Drake, A. G., Fagbodun, S., Google, A., Robinson, L., Soneral, P., & Ballen, C. J. Eight recommendations to promote effective study habits for biology students enrolled in online courses. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, e00260-21.

Beatty, A.E., Esco, A., Curtiss, A., & Ballen, C.J. Students who prefer face-to-face tests outperform their online peers in organic chemistry. Chemistry Education Research & Practice, 23(2), 464-474.

Ewell, S., Josefson, C., & Ballen, C. J. Why did students report lower test anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic? Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 00282-21.


Salehi, S., Berk, S.A., Brunelli, R., Cotner, S., Creech, C., Drake, A.G., Fagbodun, S., Hall, C., Hebert, S., James, A.C., Shuster, M., St. Juliana, J.R., Stovall, D.B., Whittington, R., Zhong, M., & Ballen, C.J. Context matters: social psychological factors that underlie academic performance across seven institutions. CBE-Life Sciences Education: 20(4), ar68.  PDF

Salehi, S., Ballen, C. J., Trujillo, G., & Wieman, C. Inclusive instructional practices: course design, implementation, and discourse. Frontiers in Education 6: 135. PDF

Beatty, A.E., Driessen, E.P., Gusler, T., Ewell, S., Grilliot, A., & Ballen, C. J. Teaching the tough topics: Fostering ideological awareness through the inclusion of societally impactful topics in introductory biology. CBE—Life Sciences Education: ar67. PDF

Odom, S., Bosso, H., Bowling, S., Brownell, S., Cotner, S., Creech, C., Drake, A. G., Eddy, S., Fagbodun, S., Hebert, S., James, A. C., Just, J., Juliana, J. R., Shuster, M., Thompson, S. K., Whittington, R., Wills, B. D., Wilson, A. E., Zamudio, K. R., Zhong, M., & Ballen, C. J. Meta-analysis of gender performance gaps in undergraduate natural science courses. CBE-Life Sciences Education 20:ar40. PDF

Ballen, C. J. & Salehi, S. Mediation analysis in discipline-based education research using structural equation modeling: beyond “what works” to understand how it works, and for whom. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education 22(2):  e00108-21. PDF

Lombardi, D., Shipley, T. F., Astronomy Team (Bailey, J. M, Bretones, P. S., Prather, E. E.), Biology Team (Ballen, C. J., Knight, J. K., Smith, M. K.), Chemistry Team (Stowe, R. L., Cooper, M. M.), Engineering Team (Prince, M.), Geography Team (Atit, K., Uttal, D. H.), Geoscience Team (LaDue, N. D., McNeal, P. M., Ryker, K., St. John, K., van der Hoeven Kraft, K. J.), & Physics Team (Docktor, J. L.). The curious construct of active learning. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 22.1: 8-43.

Beatty, A. E., Ballen, C. J., Driessen, E. P., Schwartz, T. S., & Graze, R. M. Addressing the unique qualities of upper-level biology CUREs through the integration of skill-building. Integrative and Comparative Biology, icab006. PDF

Simpson, D.Y., Beatty, A.E., & Ballen, C.J. Teaching between the lines: Representation in science textbooks. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 36(1), 4-8. 


Ballen, C. J. How a classroom failure improved my teaching. The American Biology Teacher 82 (9), 577. PDF

Salehi, S., Cotner, S., & Ballen, C.J. Variation in incoming academic preparation: consequences for minority and first-generation students. Frontiers in Education 5, 552364. PDF

Driessen, E.P., Beatty, A.E., Stokes, A., Wood. S., & Ballen, C.J. Learning principles of evolution during a crisis: an exploratory analysis of student barriers one week and one month into the COVID-19 pandemic. Ecology and Evolution 10(22), 12431-12436. PDF

Driessen, E.P., Knight, J., Smith, M., & Ballen, C.J. Demystifying the Meaning of Active Learning in Post-Secondary Biology Education. CBE-Life Sciences Education 19(4), ar52. PDF

Thompson, S., Hebert, S., Berk, S., Brunelli, R., Creech, C., Drake, A. G., Fagbodun, S., Garcia Ojeda, M., Hall, C., Harshman, J., Lamb, T., Robnett, R., Shuster, M., Cotner, S., & Ballen, C.J. 2020. A call for data-driven networks to address equity in the context of undergraduate biology. CBE-Life Sciences Education 19(4), mr2. PDF

Wood, S., Henning, J. A., Chen, L., McKibben, T., Smith, M. L., Weber, M., Zemenick, A., & Ballen, C. J. A scientist like me: demographic analysis of biology textbooks reveals both progress and long-term lags. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 287(1929), 20200877. PDF

Aguillon, S. M.*, Siegmund, G.-F.*, Petipas, R., Drake, A. G., Cotner, S., & Ballen, C. J. Gender differences in student participation in an active learning classroom. CBE-Life Sciences Education 19(2), ar12. PDF

Ballen, C.J. Enhancing Diversity in College Science with Active Learning. In J.J. Mintzes and E.M.Walter, Eds. Active learning in college science:  The case for evidence based practice.  Berlin:  Springer Nature.


Salehi, S., Cotner, S., Azarin, S. M., Carlson, E. E., Driessen, M., Ferry, V. E., Harcombe, W., McGaugh, S., Wassenberg, D., Yonas, A., & Ballen, C. J. Gender performance gaps across different assessment methods and the underlying mechanisms: the case of incoming preparation and test anxiety. Frontiers in Education 4(107). PDF

Ballen, C.J., Aguillon, S.M., Awwad, A., Bjune, A.E., Challou, D., Drake, A.G., Driessen, M., Ellozy, A., Ferry, V.A., Goldberg, E.E., Harcombe, W., Jensen, S., Jørgensen, C., Koth, Z., McGaugh, S.E., Mitry, C.,  Mosher, B., Mostafa, H., Petipas, R.H., Soneral, P.A.G., Watters, S., Wassenberg, D., Weiss, S., Yonas, A., Zamudio, K.R., & Cotner, S. Smaller classes promote equitable student participation in STEM. Bioscience 69(8), 669-680. PDF

Neill, C., Cotner, S., Driessen, M., & Ballen, C.J. Structured learning environments are required to promote equitable participation. Chemistry Education Research and Practice 20(1), 197-203. PDF

Ballen, C.J. & Holmegaard, H.T. With big data comes big responsibilities for science equity research. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education 20(1): 1-4. PDF

Henning, J.A., Ballen, C.J., Molina, S., & Cotner, S. Hidden identities shape student perceptions of active learning environments. Frontiers in Education. 4(129). PDF.


Ballen, C.J., Aguillon, S.M., Brunelli, R., Drake, A.G., Wassenburg, D., Weiss, S.L., Zamudio, K.R., & Cotner, S.  Do small classes reduce performance gaps in STEM? Bioscience 68(8):593–600. PDF

Ballen, C.J. & Zamudio, K.R. Active learning reduces course content misconceptions and promotes self-efficacy in large classrooms. In Golding, J., K. Kern, and C. Rawn (Eds.), Strategies for Teaching Large Classes Effectively in Higher Education. Cognella Publishing.

Mason, N.A., Brunner, R., Ballen, C.J., & Lovett, I.J. Cognitive and social benefits among underrepresented first-year biology students in a field course: a qualitative case study of experiential learning in the Galápagos. Frontiers: International Journal of Study Abroad. PDF

Sullivan, L.L.*, Ballen, C.J.*, & Cotner, S. Small group gender ratios in active learning courses impact performance and peer evaluations. PLoS ONE 13(4):e0195129. PDF

*Authors contributed equally to this work

2018: Ballen, C.J., Lee, D., Rakner, L., & Cotner, S. Politics a ‘chilly’ environment for undergraduate women in Norway. PS: Political Science & Politics 51(3):653-658. PDF

Ballen, C.J., Thompson, S.T., Blum, J.E., Newstrom, N.P., & Cotner, S. Discovery and broad relevance may be insignificant components of course-based undergraduate research experiences for non-biology majors.  Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education 19(2):1-9. PDF


Ballen, C.J. & Greene, H.W. Walking and talking the tree of life: Why and how to teach about biodiversity. PLoS Biology 15(3):e2001630. PDF

Ballen, C.J. & Mason, N.A. Longitudinal analysis of a diversity support program in biology: a national call for further assessment. Bioscience 67(4):367-373. PDF

Cotner, S. & Ballen, C.J. Can Mixed Assessment Methods Make Biology Classes More Equitable? PLoS ONE 12(12):e0189610. PDF

Ballen, C.J., Wieman, C., Salehi, S., Searle, J. & Zamudio, K.R. Enhancing diversity in undergraduate science: Self-efficacy drives performance gains with active learning. CBE-Life Sciences Education 16(4):ar56. PDF

Ballen, C.J.*, Salehi, S.*, & Cotner, S. Exams disadvantage women in introductory biology. PLoS ONE 12(10):e0186419. PDF

*Authors contributed equally to this work

Ballen, C.J., Blum, J., Brownell, S., Hebert, S., Hewlett, J., Klein, J., McDonald, E., Monti, D., Nold, S., Slemmons, K., Soneral, P., & Cotner, S. A call to develop course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) for nonmajor courses. CBE-Life Sciences Education 16(2): mr2. PDF

Ballen, C.J., Danielsen, M., Jørgensen, C., Grytnes, J. A., & Cotner, S. Norway’s gender gap: classroom participation in introductory science. Nordic Journal of STEM Education 1(1):262-270. PDF

Cotner, S., Ballen, C.J., & Jeno, L.M. Strategies to document active learning in biology. Nordic Journal of STEM Education. 1(1):36-42. 

Mcdiarmid, C.S., Friesen, C., Ballen, C.J., & Olsson, M. Sexual coloration and sperm performance in the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 30:1303-1312. PDF


Ballen, C.J., Andrews, R., Shine, R., & Olsson, M. Multifactorial sex-determination in chameleons. Journal of Herpetology 50(4):548-551. PDF


Tobler, M., Ballen, C.J., Healey, M., Wilson, M., & Olsson, M. Oxidant trade-offs in immunity: an experimental test in a lizard. PLoS One 10(5):e0126155. PDF

Ballen, C.J., Shine, R., & Olsson, M. Developmental plasticity in an unusual animal: the effects of incubation temperature on behavior in chameleons. Behaviour 152 (10):1307-1324. PDF


Ballen, C.J., Shine, R., & Olsson, M. Effects of early social isolation on the behaviour and performance of juvenile lizards, Chamaeleo calyptratusAnimal Behaviour 88:1-6. PDF


Olsson, M. M., Stuart-Fox, D., & Ballen, C.J. Genetics and evolution of colour patterns in reptiles. Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 24:529-41. PDF


Ballen, C.J., Healey, M., Wilson, M., Tobler, M., & Olsson, M. Predictors of telomere content in dragon lizards. Naturwissenschaften 99(8):661-664. PDF

Ballen, C.J., Healey, M., Wilson, M., Tobler, M., Wapstra, E. and Olsson, M. Net superoxide levels: steeper increase with activity in cooler female and hotter male lizards. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(5):731-735. PDF


Cotner, S., Ballen, C.J., Brooks, C. D., & Moore, R. Instructor gender and student confidence in the sciences: a need for more role models? Journal of College Science Teaching 40(5):96-101. PDF